Footnote reference numberDescription / Link
1The quote “take the robot out of the human” comes from Professor Leslie Willcocks, London School of Economics, in “The next acronym you need to know about: RPA”, 2016, published by McKinsey.
2Bornet et al., 2017. “Intelligent automation is about creating synergies between RPA, cognitive, chatbots and AI”.
3McKinsey, 2017. “Intelligent process automation: The engine at the core of the next-generation operating model”.
4IEEE Std. 2755-2017, IEEE Guide for Terms and Concepts in Intelligent Process Automation.
5Mary C. Lacity and Leslie P. Willcocks, 2018. “Robotic Process and Cognitive Automation - The Next Phase”.
6King White, 2015, “How Big is the U.S. Call Center Industry Compared to India and The Philippines?”.
7Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (in charge of setting the standards in the computer science industry), 2017. “IEEE Std. 2755-2017, IEEE Guide for Terms and Concepts in Intelligent Process Automation”.
8Gartner, 2019, “Top 10 Strategic Technology Trends for 2020”.
9The Nilson Report, 2019. “Payment Card Fraud Losses Reach $27.85 Billion: Annual Fraud Statistics Released by The Nilson Report”.
10© Bornet, Barkin & Wirtz. Open Access. This figure is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use under certain conditions detailed here:
11Refer to Part Four of the book for detailed references.
12This definition has been written by the authors, inspired by IEEE Std. 2755-2017. “IEEE Guide for Terms and Concepts in Intelligent Process Automation”
13Davenport, Thomas H., 2005. “Thinking For A Living: How to Get Better Performance and Results From Knowledge Workers”.
14Avanade, 2017. “Global Research on Intelligent Automation”.
15Amy Ann Forni and Rob van der Meulen, 2017. “Gartner Survey Shows 42 Percent of CEOs Have Begun Digital Business Transformation”. Gartner.
16Harvard Business Review, 2019. “ How Companies Are Using Intelligent Automation to Be More Innovative ”.
17Mike Wheatley, 2019. “UiPath becomes world’s most valuable AI startup”.
18Louis Columbus, 2018. “10 Charts That Will Change Your Perspective On Artificial Intelligence's Growth”.
19ZDNet, 2019, “Enterprise adoption of AI has grown 270 percent over the past four years”.
20PR Newswire, 2020.
21Grand View Research, 2020. ”Industry analysis”.
22As an illustration, here is an article on the recent acquisition of Softomotive by Microsoft:
23Gartner, 2019. “Worldwide robotic process automation market”.
24United States Department of Labor, accessed May 2019. “Seasonally adjusted figures for May 2019”.
25Number of people undernourished: FAO SOFI (2018) & World Bank (2017); Global percentage of population working in agriculture: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database, 2018.
26Aaron Smith and Monica Anderson, 2017. “Automation in Everyday Life”. Pew Research Center.
27Tipalti, 2020. “Profit per Employee”.
28Scott D. Anthony, S. Patrick Viguerie, and Andrew Waldeck, 2016. “Corporate Longevity: Turbulence Ahead for Large Organizations”. Innosight.
29The Game Of Brands, 2019. “Number of robots in Amazon’s warehouses”. Instagram.
30Sonali Basak and Christopher Palmeri, 2018. “A Goldman Trading Desk That Once Had 500 People Is Down to Three”. Bloomberg.
31Katie Costello, 2019. “Gartner Survey Reveals That CEO Priorities Are Slowly Shifting to Meet Rising Growth Challenges”. Gartner.
32Bill Thomas, 2019. “3 priorities for CEOs in 2019”. WEF.
33PWC, 2019. “22nd Annual Global CEO Survey”. PWC.
34Jacques Bughin, Jeongmin Seong, James Manyika, Michael Chui, and Raoul Joshi, 2018. “Notes from the AI frontier: Modeling the impact of AI on the world economy”. McKinsey Global Institute.
35Deloitte, 2018. “Deloitte Global RPA Survey”. Deloitte, 2018. “Deloitte Global RPA Survey”. Deloitte, 2018. “Deloitte Global RPA Survey”.
36Statista, 2019. “AI Statistics About Smarter Machines”,
37Park R., 2018. HBS, “LEGOs: Still “The Apple of Toys”?”
38Statista, accessed May 2020. “Net profit of the LEGO Group worldwide from 2009 to 2019”
39Access Lego Life on Google Play Store:
40CXO Talk, 2019. “McKinsey: Leap Beyond Digital Transformation”
41Sengupta S., 2019. “The ecosystem playbook: Winning in a world of ecosystems”.
42McKinsey Quarterly, 2018. “Building a tech-enabled ecosystem: An interview with Ping An’s Jessica Tan”.
43According to DBS CEO Piyush Gupta.
45 Jacob Morgan, 2017. “Why the Millions We Spend on Employee Engagement Buy Us So Little”. Harvard Business Review.
46Stacy Bronstein, 2019. “Making Organizations “Future-Fit” Is Top of Mind, New Study Finds”. Mercer.
47James Griffiths, 2020. “Taiwan's coronavirus response is among the best globally”
48Luke Filipowicz, 2020. “Apple's response to the pandemic has been exemplary — I'm impressed”.
49Gettysburg College, n.d. “One third of your life is spent at work”.
50Jim Clifton, 2017. “The World’s Broken Workplace”. Gallup.
51E. Mazareanu, 2019. “Accounting industry in the U.S. – Statistics & Facts”. Statista.
52Some of the sources used during the authors’ research include: Workfront, 2018. “2017–2018 State of Enterprise Work Report”; Deloitte Access Economics, 2014. “Stancombe Research and Planning”; HBR, Julian Birkinshaw and Jordan Cohen, 2019. “Make Time for the Work That Matters”.
53Workfront, 2019. “State of Enterprise work report 2019”.
54McKinsey, 2019. “Global AI Survey: AI proves its worth, but few scale impact”.
55Workfront, 2019. “State of Enterprise work report 2019”.
56Jordan Etkin and Cassie Mogilner, 2016. “Does Variety Among Activities Increase Happiness?” Journal of Consumer Research.
57Examples of such platforms include Microsoft Workplace Analytics and Work Insights (Google)
58Examples of such platforms include Woebot and Moodkit
59Examples of such platforms include Time Doctor and
60Examples of such platforms include Polinode and OrgMapper.
61Examples of such platforms include Workona, GestStation and Veamly.
62An example of such a platform is Calendly.
63Examples of such platforms include Activeinbox and Sanebox.
64Here is one of these solutions:
65Net Promoter, n.d. “What is Net Promoter?”
66 Engage Customer, n.d. “Customer satisfaction on the rise globally”.
67 TrendWatching, 2014. “The Future of Customer Service”.
68Steven Van Belleghem, 2013. “The Self-Service Economy”.
69Ellie Behling, 2017. RRD. “10 Personalization Statistics You Need to Know: Why Personalized Marketing is the Way to Go”.
70McKinsey Global Institute, 2017. “Artificial intelligence: The next digital frontier?”
71Dorothy Pomerantz, 2014. “How A Culture Of Innovation Could Win Netflix Some Emmys”. Forbes.
72Laura He, 2013. “Google's Secrets Of Innovation: Empowering Its Employees”. Forbes.
73Tricia Morris, 2013, “2013 Customer Service Expectations & Frustrations”. Business 2 Community (originally published on Parature).
74SuperOffice, n.d. “Customer Service Benchmark Report”.
75Jacada, n.d. “Vodafone “SAVES” Customers with Jacada”. Featured Customers.
76For an academic perspective on the future role of service robots see Jochen Wirtz (2020), “Organizational Ambidexterity: Cost-Effective Service Excellence, Service Robots, and Artificial Intelligence”, Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 49, No. 3; and Jochen Wirtz, Paul Patterson, Werner Kunz, Thorsten Gruber, Vinh Nhat Lu, Stefanie Paluch, and Antje Martins (2018), “Brave New World: Service Robots in the Frontline”, Journal of Service Management, Vol. 29, No. 5, 907-931,
77Jim Gee and Professor Mark Button, 2019. “The Financial Cost of Fraud 2019”. Crowe.
78Luke Slawomirski, Ane Auraaen and Niek Klazinga, 2017. “The economics of patient safety”. OECD.
79ReferralMD, n.d. “30 Healthcare Statistics That Keep Hospital Executives Up At Night”.
80Nick Tate, 2017. “4 in 5 Medical Bills Contain Errors: Here's What You Can Do”. Newsmax.
81 International Labour Organization, 2019. “Safety and Health at the Heart of the Future of Work”. ILO.
82Global Education Monitoring Report Team, 2018. “Global education monitoring report, 2019: Migration, displacement and education: building bridges, not walls”. UNESCO.
83Emergo by UL, n.d. “Worldwide Spending on Healthcare”.
84United States Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. “EPA’s Budget and Spending”.
85Multiple approaches exist to end hunger and reduce undernutrition through different investment packages, specific targets, measures, and policy pathways, leading to a wide range of costs. Estimates range from $7 billion to $265 billion per year.
86Shenggen Fan, 2018. “The multibillion dollar question: How much will it cost to end hunger and undernutrition?” ReliefWeb.
87Here is a useful summary of how IA can help governments: McKinsey, 2019. “How governments can harness the power of automation at scale”.
88World Health Organization, n.d. “WHO Mortality Database”.
89IHME, Global Burden of Disease, accessed and extracted on October 2019.
90Peerapornratana S., 2019. “Acute kidney injury from sepsis: current concepts, epidemiology, pathophysiology, prevention and treatment”.
91Nenad Tomašev et al., 2019. “A clinically applicable approach to continuous prediction of future acute kidney injury”. Nature.
92Ray Sipherd, 2018. “The third-leading cause of death in US most doctors don’t want you to know about”. CNBC.
93Emily Jerry Foundation.
94Yolanda Smith, n.d. “Physician Shortage”. News Medical.
95Wikiwand, accessed May 2020.
96Baylon website:
97Tissue Analytics website:
98US Department of Transportation, n.d. NHTSA.
99Pascal Bornet, 2019. “Vehicle Action Prediction, using Artificial Intelligence”. LinkedIn.
100Pascal Bornet, 2019. “The first universal self-driving add-on kit”. LinkedIn.
101Watch this video of the first world’s first haptic telerobotic system. It transmits realistic touch feedback to the user located anywhere in the world.
102One of the rare examples where machine learning is used to support smelling and tasting senses: Esat Dedezade, 2019. “Meet the world’s first AI-created whisky”.
103Popular technology vendors are Abbyy, Taiger, Workfusion and Antwork.
104The main technology vendors on the market are Philips, Siemens and IBM Watson. New entrants with innovative solutions are Arterys, Gauss Surgical, and Zebra Medical Vision.
105Pascal Bornet, 2019. “Chester, the first AI Radiologist Assistant”. LinkedIn.
106Fast Company, 2017, “This AI Startup Wants To Automate Every Store Like Amazon Go”.
107Pascal Bornet, 2019. “V-Count”.
108Pascal Bornet, 2019. “Intelligent Shopping now available for all shops”.
109Technology vendors on this market are Epiplex or Legito.
110In this video, you can watch what a Tesla's full autopilot (IA-based) sees:
111Watch the first iris tracking technology and read how it opens the door to amazing applications:
112Vanessa Gu, 2019. “Singapore’s vision for hands-free immigration clearance”. GovInsider.
113Dave Gershgorn, 2020. “This Simple Facial Recognition Search Engine Can Track You Down Across the Internet”.
114Popular vendors on the market include Pega, Appian and Mendix.
115Pega Systems, n.d. “Award-winning case management and BPM for continuous operational excellence”.
116Here is an example in action of a low-code platform: Mendix, 2018. “Developing in Mendix Low-code Platform”. YouTube.
117Popular vendors on the market include UiPath, Automation Anywhere and Blue Prism.
118UiPath, 2020. “UiPath 2020.4 Monthly Update: A Studio Edition for Everyone”.
119I. Barkin, 2019. LinkedIn Learning, “Introducing Robotic Process Automation”.
120Popular technology vendors include Nuance, IPSoft, and
121Sarah Perez, 2019. “Voice assistants in use to triple to 8 billion by 2023”. TechCrunch.
122Soul Machines, 2018. “Digital Healthcare for Tomorrow”.
123Soul Machines, 2018. “Jamie's first 100 days”. YouTube.
124Soul Machines, 2018. “Digital Healthcare for Tomorrow”. YouTube.
125Google, 2018, “Google Duplex: A.I. Assistant Calls Local Businesses To Make Appointments”.
126Popular technology vendors include Iodine, Optum and 3M.
127A popular platform is Sovren.
128A popular platform is LexNLP.
129Hugh Son, 2017. “JPMorgan Software Does in Seconds What Took Lawyers 360,000 Hours”. Bloomberg.
130A popular platform is offered by CaseBank Technologies.
131P. Bornet, 2020. “Impressive new Excel function”. YouTube.
132P. Bornet, 2020. “When AI creates AI…”. YouTube.
133P. Bornet, 2020. “GPT-3 can also answer complex medical questions”. LinkedIn.
134Popular vendors include Hootsuite, Quick Search, and Critical Mention.
135Talkwalker, 2019. Competitive benchmarking.
136Popular vendors include Nice, Verint, and CallMiner.
137Servion Global Solutions, 2017. “Virtual Assistant - powered by Artificial Intelligence” (start watching the demo at 0:57), YouTube,
138For more explanation on the different machine learning algorithms available, here is one of the most comprehensive sources of information:
139KDnuggets, 2019. “Which Data Science / Machine Learning methods and algorithms did you use in 2018/2019 for a real-world application?”,
140Thomas Franck, 2019. “Morgan Stanley used AI to study its own analysts and figured out how to beat the market”.
141Tableau, 2018. Discovering the commercial benefits with data visualization.
142Richard Wike and Bruce Stokes, 2018. “In Advanced and Emerging Economies Alike, Worries About Job Automation”. Pew Research Center.
143The Data Warehousing Institute, n.d. “Data quality and the bottom line”.
144Headwaters Group, 2017. “Your Unstructured Data is Sexy, You Just Don’t Know It”.
145Leandro DalleMule and Thomas H. Davenport, HBR, 2017. The 2 Types of Data Strategies Every Company Needs.
146Brian X. Chen and Cade Metz, 2019. “Google’s Duplex Uses AI to Mimic Humans (Sometimes)”. New York Times.
147McKinsey Global Institute, 2017. “A future that works: automation, employment and productivity”.
148Here is a very valuable source of information on using agile in the context of automation transformations:
149McKinsey, 2018. “Breaking away: The secrets to scaling analytics”.
150McKinsey, 2018. “Breaking away: The secrets to scaling analytics”,
151Deloitte, 2018. “State of AI in the Enterprise, 2nd Edition”.
152McKinsey, 2018. “Building an effective analytics organization”.
153McKinsey, 2018. “Building an effective analytics organization”.
154Andrew Pellegrino, 2019. “The Journey to Intelligent Automation with RPA & DataRobot”.
155McKinsey, 2019. “A recipe for banking operations efficiency”.
156McKinsey, 2017. “The next-generation operating model for the digital world”.
157McKinsey, 2018. “Building an effective analytics organization”.
158Read about the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) policy here:
159McKinsey, 2018. “AI adoption advances, but foundational barriers remain”,
160Deloitte, 2018. Deloitte's third annual RPA Survey,
161Rob Matheson, MIT, 2019. Drag-and-drop data analytics.
162Watch the video here: It shows the medical doctor dragging and dropping algorithms and data features to analyze data correlation.
163There are only a few technologies available on the market like Talon, or Dragon by Nuance.
164Lars Hulstaert, 2018. “Understanding model predictions with LIME”. Towards Data Science.
165Konstantinos Georgatzis and Simon Williams, 2018. “Making AI Human Again: The importance of Explainable AI (XAI) “. Medium.
166Gartner, 2019. Gartner Top 10 Strategic Technology Trends for 2020.
167Read more about SAP Leonardo:
168Microsoft, 2020. “Microsoft acquires Softomotive”.
169Markets and Markets, n.d. “Artificial Intelligence Platform Market by Component (Tools, Services), Deployment Mode (Cloud, On-Premises), Application (Forecasts & Prescriptive Models, Chatbots, Speech Recognition, Text Recognition), End-User, and Region – Global Forecast to 2022”.
170Soul Machines, 2018. “Jamie's first 100 days”. Watch the video here:
171For example, RoboSuite by Reveal Group helps to perform this high-level assessment automatically based on the collection of a few business indicators.
172Kryon, 2018. “Kryon Introduces Process Discovery”.
173Here is an example of such a solution in action: Kryon, 2018. “Kryon Process Discovery”. YouTube. Watch a demonstration showing the four steps of a process discovery:
174Businesswire, 2016. “Celonis Launches the First Enterprise-Class, Big Data Analytics Process Mining Platform“.
175Here is an example of such a solution in action: SAP Technology, 2016. “Introducing SAP Process Mining by Celonis”. YouTube.
176Here is an example of a data discovery platform: Also available in video here: “SparkBeyond at Microsoft Inspire July 2018”. YouTube.
177Watch the video here:
178DataRobot, 2019. Benefits to Data Scientists.
179Choiceworx was the first company to launch, in 2019, a universal intelligent platform for maintenance and monitoring of automation programs:
180Here is an example of such a platform:
181Amazon Technologies, Inc, and Jonathan Evan Cohn, 2017. “Ultrasonic bracelet and receiver for detecting position in 2D plane”. United States Patent and Trademark Office.
182Kirsten Korosec, 2019. “Researchers developed a sensing system to constantly track the performance of workers”. TechCrunch.
183BBC, 2017. “Wearables at work: Are we trading our souls for a few flashy trinkets?”
184Example of an application with AR Sticky Notes:
185Bloomberg, 2017. “Could This Hologram Headset Replace Your Office?”
186Pascal Bornet, 2019. “Holographic telepresence is changing the way we communicate remotely in real-time”
187Illustration of Paribas and Orange use cases here:
188Visit Spatial’s website here:
189Pascal Bornet, 2019, A hologram of you speaking any language.
190Mashable Deals, 2017. “Company microchips employees for access to the office”. YouTube.
191CNBC, 2017. “This Wisconsin Company Is The First U.S. Business To Implant Chips In Its Employees”. YouTube.
192Xiang Zhang, Lina Yao, Quan Z. Sheng, Salil S. Kanhere, Tao Gu, and Dalin Zhang, 2017. “Converting Your Thoughts to Texts: Enabling Brain Typing via Deep Feature Learning of EEG Signals”.
193See the demo in action: Xiang Zhang, 2017. “Online non-invasive brain typing through EEG-based BCI”. YouTube.
194Here is a demo of such technology: Pascal Bornet, 2019. “New generation of prosthetics can read minds... (almost)”. YouTube.
195Pascal Bornet, 2019. “Generating speech from brain activity”. LinkedIn.
196More information on the Neuralink project:
197Samuel Arzt, 2016. “Deep Learning Cars”.
198Cyrill Glockner, 2020. “AnyLogic and Project Bonsai help companies teach machines to solve real-world business problems”.
199David Sontag, 2017. “Finding optimal treatment policies”.
200Thomas Zakrzewski, Distinguished Engineer S&P Global Ratings.
201Kat Mustatea, 2018. “Meet Plantoid: Blockchain Art With A Life Of Its Own”. Forbes.
202Abra, n.d. “How long does it take for a native coin (BTC, LTC, BCH, ETH) transaction to be confirmed?”
203Pini Raviv, 2018. “How to solve Blockchain’s data storage issues once and for all”. Bitcoinist.
204Digiconomist, accessed May 2020. “Bitcoin Energy Consumption Index”
205University of Melbourne, 2019. “Your future coworkers could be a swarm of robots”.
206Rachel Gordon, MIT News, 2019. “Self-transforming robot blocks jump, spin, flip, and identify each other”., Watch the video here:
207E Castelló Ferrer, 2019, “The Blockchain: a new framework for robotic swarm systems”. In: Arai K., Bhatia R., Kapoor S. (eds) Proceedings of the Future Technologies Conference (FTC) 2018. FTC 2018. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 881. Springer, Cham
208Klaus Schwab, 2017. “The Fourth Industrial Revolution”.
209See also how the fourth industrial revolution drives quality and productivity in across virtually all the service sectors: Jochen Wirtz, Paul Patterson, Werner Kunz, Thorsten Gruber, Vinh Nhat Lu, Stefanie Paluch, and Antje Martins, 2018. “Brave New World: Service Robots in the Frontline”, Journal of Service Management, Vol. 29, No. 5, 907-931,; Jochen Wirtz and Valarie Zeithaml, 2018., “Cost-Effective Service Excellence”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 59-80.; Jochen Wirtz, Kevin Kam Fung So, Makarand Mody, Stephanie Liu, and Helen Chun, 2019. “Platforms in the Peer-to-Peer Sharing Economy”, Journal of Service Management, Vol. 30, No. 4, 452-483;
210A. Smith, 1759. “The Theory of Moral Sentiments”.
211World Economic Forum, 2018. “The Future of Jobs 2018”.
212World Economic Forum, 2018. “Future of Jobs Report 2018”.
213Katja Grace, John Salvatier, Allan Dafoe, Baobao Zhang, and Owain Evans, 2018. “When Will AI Exceed Human Performance? Evidence from AI Experts”.
214David J. Hill, 2015. “Finland’s Latest Educational Move Will Produce a Generation of Entrepreneurs”. SingularityHub.
215Bernard Golstein, 2019. “Duality: Prepare Yourselves and Your Children for the Age of Artificial Intelligence”.
216P. Bornet, 2020. “Improving learning experience with AI”. YouTube.
217Bernard Golstein, 2019. “Duality: Prepare Yourselves and Your Children for the Age of Artificial Intelligence”.
218Claudia Goldin and Lawrence F. Katz, 2008. “The Race between Education and Technology”.
219IDrinkandIKnowThings, 2017. “Is it unethical for me to not tell my employer I’ve automated my job?” The Workplace Stack Exchange.
220Maria Nikolova, 2019. “Limited time as an asset – SMBC forms new business to boost productivity via robotics and AI”. FinanceFeeds.
221SMBC Group, 2019. “Sumitomo Mitsui Financial Group, Inc. to establish a new company designed to support business competitiveness through productivity improvement”.
222Stacy Bronstein, 2019. “With More Business Disruption Expected, Making Organizations “Future-Fit” is Top of Mind, New Study Finds”. Mercer.
223Robert Solow, 1957, “Technical change and the aggregate production function”.
224Thomas Piketty, 2014, “Capital in the Twenty-First Century”.
225Maslow A., 1943. "A Theory of Human Motivation". Psychological Review.
226NYU and Imperative, 2015. “Workforce Purpose Index”.
227Kela and the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, 2019. “Preliminary results of the basic income experiment: self-perceived wellbeing improved, during the first year no effects on employment”.
228Government of Ontario, 2019. Ontario Basic Income Pilot
229Sam Harris, 2018. “The edge of humanity, a conversation with Yuval Noah Harari”.
230International Labour Organization, 2019. “Safety and Health at the Heart of the Future of Work”. ILO.
231Siri Aas Rustad, 2013. “Conflict Trends”. PRIO.
232World Health Organization, n.d. “WHO Mortality Database”.
233Jim Clifton, 2017. “The World’s Broken Workplace”. Gallup.
234Bryan Robinson, 2019. “Two-Thirds Of Workers Experienced Burnout This Year: How To Reverse The Trend In 2020”. Forbes.
235New China TV, 2019. “Jack Ma and Elon Musk hold debate in Shanghai”. YouTube.
236The Guardian, 2018. “Japan urges overworked employees to take Monday mornings off”
237Reuters, 2019. “Do more with less: New Zealand firm's four-day week”.
238Kai-Fu Lee, 2018. “AI Superpowers: China, Silicon Valley and the New World Order”.
239Rupal Parekh, 2012. “Global Study: 75% Of People Think They're Not Living Up to Creative Potential”. AdAge.
240Country Economy, comparison of Norway versus Saudi Arabia, accessed May 2020.
241The Economist Intelligence Unit, n.d. “Who is Ready for the Coming Wave of Automation?”. The Economist.
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243Outsource Accelerator, 2020. “Ultimate outsourcing statistics and reports in 2020”.
244Economic Times, 2020. “Companies move jobs away from India as coronavirus shakes up back offices”.
245Financial Times, 2020. “Amazon contractors enduring ‘subhuman’ conditions in Philippines”.
246Ry Crozier, 2020. “Suncorp automates processes it had outsourced to India”.
247Read more about Aera here:
248The National, 2019. “Health pods installed in Dubai government offices will collect workers' data”.
249Science Advances, 2020. “Wireless smart contact lens for diabetic diagnosis and therapy”.
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251Stanford University medical school, 2020. “Smart toilet monitors for signs of disease”.
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